Strands 5&6

Slides 4
Strand 4
24th August 2021
Slides 7
Strand 7
25th August 2021

Learning outcomes

Knowledge:

  • Know about supporting multilingualism across the curriculum
  • Know about planning for new arrivals

Skills:

  • Be able to consider content against language learning
  • Be able to identify cognitive involvement in language tasks and activities

Understanding:

  • Develop planning in your school

 

Strand Overview

Planning (Strand 5):

5a. Are content-learning challenges (learning outcomes/objectives) identified?
5b. Are language-learning challenges (learning outcomes/objectives) identified?
5c. Is the content suitable for age and language background?
5d. Does it include appropriate, comprehensible learning opportunities for learning curriculum concepts? Within early years, are there opportunities for learners to exploit the learning context?
5e. Are there planned opportunities to access higher-order thinking skills?
Within early years, is there considered opportunities/strategies to extend learners’ thinking?
5f. Is the progression of learning suitably considered?
5g. If reading is present, are reading activities appropriately levelled so they are comprehensible as well as appropriate for reaching the learning challenge (learning outcome/objective)? Within early years, are appropriate, accessible interactive reading experiences included?
5h. Are resources suitably selected to be adaptable to the language and content needs of EAL learners at every level of proficiency? (E.g. use of graphic organisers, visuals, real-life items and so on). Within early years, do open-ended resources (e.g. sand, blocks, water and play dough) and hands-on experiences allow adults to considered the language learning opportunities they can exploit within a rich, stimulating environment.
5i Are learners grouped appropriately for learning? E.g. are they collaborating with different members of the class to provide a broad range of interactions. Within early years, are adults considering small, focused interactive opportunities in a variety of situations to support language development?

Teaching (Strand 6):

Integral to learning
6a. Does the session provide appropriate comprehensible input to all learners from any language background? For example, is there clear modelling with a variety of demonstration from practical work, visuals, gestures or collaborative learning? Within early years, is a skillful adult responding in a way that allows learners to access the learning.
6b. Does the session include opportunities to access higher-order thinking skills? For example, does the teaching introduce appropriate curriculum concepts or enable questioning? Within early years, is there sustained shared thinking (two or more individuals working together in an intellectual way to solve a problem, clarify a concept, evaluate activities, or extend a narrative e.g. tuning in, listening carefully, looking at body language, showing genuine interest, smiling, nodding.
6c. Are opportunities for speaking and listening integral to the session? Within early years, are adults an active partner in the conversational process? E.g. expanding and extending language (child has a go then the adult models/scaffolds/extends the language.) *
6d. Is time allowed for clarification of learning and a variety of feedback? (E.g. peer feedback, teacher feedback, self-assessment?) Do they have enough time to listen, process and respond?
6e. Is the session paced appropriately for all levels? Within early years, considering the wait time for responses and when to instigate a response.

From 6 years old:

Connection (orientate, assess & build the field)
6f. Does the session build on learners’ prior knowledge? Within early years, does the practitioner build and value the funds of knowledge, skills and experiences of the learners?
6g. If appropriate, is revision of previous concepts, vocabulary or language structures built into the connection activity? Within early years, are comments (using vocabulary and language structures) extended and recasted e.g. the child says ‘I selled’ and the adult responds with the correctly modelled phrase ‘I sold’ (keeping the meaning).
6h. Is questioning used to initiate thinking, engage and hypothesise about the concept? (This may include pre-taught vocabulary and language structures.) Within early years, are adults using questions well to encourage learners to respond more fully (avoid asking too many questions, particularly closed questions). Are stories, games and routines used as entry points to create and introduce and high quality language learning experiences?

Activation (explore, model & jointly construct)
6i. Do all learners explore the content learning challenge? Within early years when focusing on the learning challenge, does the adult tune into the child’s interest and choose the right vocabulary and language structures to weave in the concept?
6j. Does the activity provide clear, structured, modelling/scaffolding and result in joint construction? Within early years, are learners hearing good language, modelled in a context, with visual support.
6k. Are vocabulary and language structures highlighted clearly so that learners of all language abilities can access the content? Within early years, are the adults highlighting appropriate level vocabulary and language structures through a contextual commentary?
6l. Are language learning strategies modelled to support learners in accessing content? (E.g. using a substitution table for speaking or writing, or a strategy for remembering vocabulary or highlighting words they don’t know to add to a homework activity.) Within early years, is the prime language learning strategy contextual commentary within guided play (when an adult provides support to help children achieve a learning goal)?

Demonstration (refine, practise & move to independence)
6m. Are learners of all language abilities using the vocabulary and language structures highlighted to access the content? Within early years, are adults developing appropriate, intentional learning experiences around specific vocabulary and language structures to access to content?
6n. Are learners using the clear structure or scaffold provided to access the learning? Within early years, are you observing learners applying the language independently following scaffolding?
6o. Are EAL learners using the language learning strategies modelled to support them in accessing content? Within early years, are you observing EAL learners using the contexts you provided to use the language structures and vocabulary?
6p. If writing is present, are opportunities provided to rehearse the language before writing occurs? Within early years, taking meaning from mark making and starting to talk about the features of print e.g. something they recognize in text.

Consolidation (revise, apply & reflect)
6q. Can the learner apply the learning to real-life experiences? Within early years, are children having longer conversations with increased turns around the language/concept focus?
6r. Is there a review of all vocabulary and language structures learnt? Within early years, are adults revisiting the language to support children with additional exposure?
6s. Are all learners able to reflect on their content learning? (Prior modelling of appropriate vocabulary and language structures can support learners of all abilities in articulating themselves.) Within early, do adult pose the right opportunities to encourage reflect and think about their learning?

Preparation:

Graphic organisers on the Across Cultures Framework Portal.

 

Slide 2 – Mainstream classroom

Define ‘mainstreaming’ and then share the guiding principles.

Note the inclusivity of each point. We are going to provide you with ways to accomplish this inclusivity.

  1. Mainstreaming should provide a full range of educational opportunities to all students, eliminating social and racial barriers.
    • How can we make international-mindedness integral to the learning experience?
  2. Mainstreaming should provide opportunities for English language learners to interact socially and with English proficient peers.
    • How can we support learners in becoming competent in social language?
  3. Mainstreaming should provide opportunities for groups to function effectively once successful instructional strategies are employed.
    • How can we equip teachers and learners with successful instructional strategies?
  4. Mainstreaming should provide opportunities for all teachers to consider the language demands of all the students in the classroom.
    • How can we cater for language learning alongside day-to-day curriculum content?

 

Slide 3 – Supporting multilingualism across the curriculum

Revisit this quote to emphasise that it’s not just about mainstreaming, but also about fostering multilingualism across the curriculum. Supporting emergent bilinguals needs to be integral to the process of learning.

 

Slide 4 – Planning for EAL New Arrivals

Recap Cummins, who defined CALP (Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency) and BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills):

BICS is Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills. It refers to the ‘surface’ skills of listening and speaking, which are normally acquired quickly by many learners. It is also referred to at Across Cultures as ‘survival language’.

CALP is Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency. This refers to a learner’s needs to be sufficiently proficient in the language to access the academic demands of the curriculum.

These two elements require planning. It can be extremely challenging to ensure all survival language is covered within the context of the curriculum. It is therefore advisable to ensure the survival language is covered separately, as well as within the curriculum.

 

Slide 5 – Consider content and language integrated learning (CLIL)

Read the quote:

“CLIL is a dualfocused educational approach in which an additional language is used for learning and teaching for both content and language. Each is interwoven, even if the emphasis is greater on one or other at a given time.”
(Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010)

See notes below for further explanation:

“The educational success of CLIL is in the content-and language-learning outcomes realised in classrooms. It offers pathways to learning subject-specific language terminology, developing cognition, greater authenticity, motivation, the need for learners to understand the essential ‘nuts and bolts’ to use the language as well as a greater understanding of acquiring and learning language.”
Coyle, D., Hood, P., Marsh, D (2010) CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

We will look at how to do this in more detail.

 

Slide 6 – Consider content and language

This activity is designed to start the process of considering planning for language learning alongside content (CALP and integrating content and language).

Divide participants into groups of about 4. Each group needs to have a person to scribe what is being said.

Participants in each group predict the impact of new transport links on a village. Allow the participants to use their own words without you prompting them.

Discussions will, most likely, include technical vocabulary such as: noise pollution, congestion, overcrowding, etc… Participants should also come up with some language structures, such as ‘It will..’ ‘It might…’ ‘Perhaps…’ This is the ‘language prediction’ (refer to Activity 5.7 in the Shared Document showing the language structures by text type after the activity).

Activity inspired by Tower Hamlets, Progression in Language Structures, 2013.

 

Slide 7 – Recording your activity

On completion of the previous activity, view a way to record the work.

Explain:

Teachers need to consider the outcomes of the learning challenge. Participants should use the same method to collect both the vocabulary and the language structures. Within the group, one person may scribe (activity 5.1), with the rest focused on completing the task.

The commitment to scribing real interactions will have a powerful impact on selecting the right language needed.

Point out that it’s easy to assume the language requirements for a task and then find that they don’t quite fit with the outcome you require.

 

Slide 8 – Geography – consider content and language

Show two examples of how a learning challenge can be used for beginners, intermediate and advanced learners of English. Point out the vocabulary focus for the beginners/starters, the language structure and vocabulary for intermediates and the more advanced activity for the more fluent learners.

 

Slide 9 – Science – consider content and language

Show two examples of how a learning challenge can be used for beginners, intermediate and advanced learners of English. Point out the vocabulary focus for the beginners/starters, the language structure and vocabulary for intermediates and the more advanced activity for the more fluent learners.

 

Slide 10 – History – consider content and language

Give the participants this objective and ask them to consider how they could differentiate for the EAL new arrivals. Emphasise the importance of vocabulary for beginners/starters and language structures for intermediate learners.

Provide 5-10 minutes for each example and allow some time at the end of each for feedback.

Note that the participants’ examples should follow a similar structure. Intermediate activities should include language structures with interchangeable vocabulary. All EAL learners should have a strong emphasis on vocabulary.

Use the cross-curricular planner as a reference (see Cross-curricular planner in Strand 4) to source appropriate language topics.

Participants can note down their ideas, then share their thoughts (Activity 5.2).

(Time guide: 20 minutes)

 

Slide 11 – Art – consider content and language

Repeat the previous activity for the Art objective listed (Activity 5.3).

Again, use the cross-curricular planner as a reference (see Strand 4).

 

Slide 12 – Consider using substitution tables

Share the substitution table with the participants.

Activity 5.4:

Participants create a substitution table for advanced, intermediate and absolute beginner learners using the objective in either Activity 5.2 (to produce a structured account of life in ancient Egypt) or 5.3 (to question and make thoughtful observations about starting points for their work).

Activity 5.5:

Provide some relevant curriculum objectives for participants or ask participants to choose their own curriculum objective. Use these curriculum content objectives to create substitution tables that could be used for:

  • Advanced English proficiency learners
  • Intermediate English proficiency learners
  • Absolute beginner learners.

Ask the participants what key vocabulary and language structures they identified when creating these substitution tables.

Participants can use either the cross-curricular planner (see Strand 4) or the language structures by text type to help.

 

Slide 13 – Cummins’ Framework

Look at the EAL learners’ framework to identify cognitive involvement in language tasks and activities.

Share Cummins’ framework and note that:

EAL learners need to access context-embedded learning of high cognitive demand – although this can be very difficult in the early stages of learning.

Learning should not be of low cognitive demand and context-unembedded, e.g. copying incomprehensible material.

 

Slide 14 – Bloom’s taxonomy

Note the levels of thinking and share the stages.

 

Slide 15 – Examples of types of activities you may put in each quadrant

This slide shows how Bloom’s taxonomy fits in with Cummins’ framework to identify cognitive involvement in language tasks and activities.

Insert tasks and then level of thinking into each quadrant of the framework (Activities 5.6 and 5.7).

 

Slide 16 – Consider language structure requirements

Show the assessment for learning form, which covers a broad progression in language learning (activity 5.8)

Which language learning challenges would work well to teach alongside the curriculum objective?

 

Slide 17 – Progression in language

Is it possible to differentiate language structures according to text type (see Activity 5.9, which provides a framework for selecting vocabulary, text types (or functions) and language structures and refers to ‘Language structures by Text Type’, showing language structures at a beginner level by text type).

This can also be used to assist the participants in differentiating their language learning objective alongside their content learning objective.

 

Slide 18 – Cycle of learning

Reminder:

The learning cycle is designed to offer a clear approach to learning which includes scaffolding for language learning.

The cycle does not have to be achieved in one lesson, but forms a good framework for a whole unit leading to a final outcome, e.g. a piece of writing, a debate, a film or story.

For more information on the learning cycle, see ‘Further learning – How it works – in theory’ in Strand 4 of the Portal.

Reminder: Learning cycle

Connection
At the beginning of a session, the connection phase (orientate, assess and build the field) allows the learners to orientate themselves within the context and start building their understanding of the new topic. It also allows both learners and teachers to collaboratively assess understanding.

Activation
The activation phase (explore, modelling and joint construction) is for generating ideas on how you use the language. It incorporates modelling and joint construction.

Demonstration
The demonstration phase (refine, practise and move to independence) helps the learners to recall and use the vocabulary or language structures independently.

Consolidation
The consolidation phase (revise, apply and reflect) is a chance for students to revisit as well as reflect on their learning and to relate this to their own lives by applying it to real-life experiences.

 

Slide 19 – Cycle of learning

No notes

 

Slide 20 – Speaking, listening, reading and writing across the curriculum

Explain that:

In order to scaffold text-level content, we need to gather all our sentence and word-level content and know-how to implement it.

We have now looked at language learning on a word and sentence level, alongside content. In this next session, we provide ideas on moving to text-level discourse, using the new language within the reading and writing of content studied across the curriculum.

There are a number of text types that we frequently use in our discourse. Each of these has certain characteristics (or features). Let’s take persuasive texts as an example.

 

Slide 21 – Persuasive text

Set the scene by reminding participants that you use persuasion to encourage someone to join a point of view. Provide some examples.

Inspired by Sue Palmer (2001).

 

Slide 22 – What else needs to be considered in a persuasive text?

Discuss the specific language structures pertinent to this text type (e.g. ‘There might be…’).

The technical vocabulary is topic-specific rather than text-type-specific (e.g. ‘motorway’).

There will also be academic language specific to the text type (e.g. ‘persuade’).

 

Slide 23 – Planning

Participants need to read the example plan (Activity 6.1), before constructing their own (using an agreed, relevant learning challenge they can try in class). This planning template is available on the Across Cultures Framework Portal.

Explain:

This planning template includes:

  1. Both a subject learning objective and a language learning objective
  2. Explicit notes on differentiating for different levels of English proficiency
  3. Acknowledgement of levels of thinking (with reference to Bloom’s taxonomy)
  4. Links to international understanding
  5. Support for home language

The planner contains a supportive cycle of learning:

  1. Orientate, assess and build the field (connection)
  2. Explore, model and joint construction (activation)
  3. Refine, practise and move to independence (demonstration)
  4. Revise, apply and reflect (consolidation)

 

Slide 24 – Planning: Recording the right vocabulary and language structures 

Remind participants:

Teachers need to consider the outcomes of a learning challenge. Participants can form a group with one scribe. The group solves the learning challenge, while the scribe writes the vocabulary and language structures the group uses to articulate it.

The commitment to scribing real interactions will have a powerful impact on selecting the right language needed.

Point out that it’s easy to assume the language requirements for a task and then find that they don’t quite fit with the outcome you require.

Activity 6.2 requires participants to note down their theme, learning challenge, outcome and text type, as well as notes for scribing and beginning their plan. It also requires them to note the levels of thinking the learners will engage in, how the home language will be supported, links to international understanding, and notes on support for more able pupils and those with SEND.

 

Slide 25 – Planning: Building a persuasive text toolkit

Explain:

Teachers and then learners can populate their toolkit (language functions) with vocabulary and language structures based on shared speaking and listening, with reference to an image or perhaps a YouTube clip.

 

Slide 26 – Connection (orientate, assess, build the field)

Explain:

Connection:
At the beginning of a session, the connection phase (orientate, assess and build the field) allows the learners to orientate themselves within the context and start building their understanding of the new topic. It also allows both learners and teachers to collaboratively assess understanding.

Ask the participants to plan their inspiring speaking and listening introduction. There is an example in the Shared document – Activity 6.1. It should incorporate some of the key vocabulary and language structures the learners will need for articulating the final outcome. For example, if the final outcome is a report on the Amazon rainforest, then the language they might require could be ‘In the Amazon rainforest, we observe different layers of the rainforest’ or ‘In the Amazon rainforest, we find…’.

The speaking and listening activity can start with a video or an image to prompt learner responses. It could include role-play, mime or freeze frames (in which action is frozen: for example, a group of learners could be shown ‘frozen’ cutting wood, indicating deforestation).

See Activity 6.3.

 

Slide 27 – Activation

Explain:

Activation
The activation phase (explore, model and joint construction) is for generating ideas on how you use the language. It incorporates modelling and joint construction.

Read the slide and review the structure

 

Slide 28 – Graphic organisers to support comprehension

Graphic organisers support learners with the comprehension of text or dialogue, and with speaking, listening and writing, depending on how they are used. The Portal provides a number of templates. Learners can also use ‘skeletons’, which are a little less structured, but allow them to create their own more easily. Refer to ‘Further learning – graphic organisers to structure text types‘ in the Portal.

Ask the participants to plan an example outcome using one of the graphic organisers, e.g. a report or a narrative. They should add key vocabulary and language structures from the toolbox as they plan. See Activity 6.4.

 

Slide 29 – Demonstration

Explain:

Demonstration
The demonstration phase (refine, practise and move to independence) helps the learners to recall and use the vocabulary or language structures independently.

The toolkit and graphic organiser an be used by learners to independently reconstruct the text.

On completion, they can edit the text, referencing where they have used the tools in the toolkit, perhaps by colour-coding adjectives or using the letters SC for sequential connectives. At this point, they can choose to update the text with more vocabulary or language structures from the toolkit.

 

Slide 30 – Consolidation

Explain:

Consolidation
The consolidation phase (revise, apply and reflect) is a chance for students to revisit as well as reflect on their learning and to relate this to their own lives by applying it to real-life experiences.

The toolkit can be used by learners to independently construct a new, yet similar text. For example, if they initially wrote a letter to persuade the government to limit deforestation, they could then write a reply from the government to persuade you otherwise (using the same technical and academic language). They should have access to their previous scaffolding.

 

Slide 31 – Post-session learning

All participants should ensure they read any ‘Further learning’ sections within Strand 4 that were not covered in the session.

 

Slide 32 – Reflection and Action Points

Allow participants 5 minutes’ reflection time to add to their Reflection and Action Points notes. Point participants to the EAL Framework and to Strands 5 and 6 in the Handbook to support their reflection. 

Tasks for participants:

  • Are there practical tasks found in this session you can ask participants to try out themselves?
  • Can they then feedback on these tasks in a follow-up session or at a later date?
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